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Sea Ray


Noel with Honda Shadow ACE

Harley Davidson





Harley Davidson

Harley Davidson









Anotonio and Me

2003 Honda Shadow A.C.E.





Ersie the Biker

Bob on HD

Bob and Cherry














April 16

April 16

April 16




Basic Rider Course - Motorcycle Safety Foundation
Exam questions and answer: Out of this 75, 50 will be in the actual PA exam. This is the actual exam. The other 50% will be the riding exam on the course. Don’t fall or you’ll flunk!
Name 2 primary differences between cars/trucks and motorcycles.
Motorcycles do not have the stability of cars because they must be balanced, and motorcycles leave you more vulnerable in a crash because there is less protection.
What are the problems that these differences cause?
Motorcycles are not readily seen as cars, trucks, or other motor vehicles because of their size. Other motorists, particularly those that don’t ride a motorcycle, may not be looking for motorcycles in traffic.
Part of being responsible means to give a lot of thought to what?
Choosing to accept the challenges of being a responsible motorcyclist means to think about the consequences of your riding behavior in traffic.
What is the primary cause of motorcycle crashes?
There is rarely a single cause. There is usually an interaction of factors that accumulate, and at some point in time the come together in such a way to produce a crash.
How does the Handbook define a “good motorcyclist?”
A key element of a good rider would be to have the desire and motivation to choose to reduce risk while riding. It takes superior riding skill; and of course, a positive mental attitude helps. A fundamental trait of a all good riders is that they have a strategy, a way of thinking and planning to avoid trouble.
How does a rider reduce factors that lead to crashes?
A good motorcyclist reduces factors that lead to problems by applying a STRATEGY.
What does it mean to have a margin of safety?
This means to consider the “margin for error,” or how much extra time and space you need given your skill level.
What is SEE, and what does each letter stand for?
Search, Evaluate, Execute
Name several purposes of protective riding gear.
Protective gear has several purposes, including providing comfort, increasing visibility, and offering protection.
What’s the difference between a full-face and three-quarter-coverage helmet?
A full-face helmet gives the most protection since it covers all of the head and face. A three-quarter helmet doesn’t offer the face and chin protection of full-face helmets.
Why aren’t ordinary glasses or sunglasses sufficient eye protection?
They can shatter or fly off, and they allow wind and airborne objects to reach the eyes.
What stickers are likely to indicate a well-made helmet?
DOT sticker means the helmet meets safety test standards required by federal law for all helmets sold in the U.S. Snell Memorial Foundation indicates the helmet has passed Snell safety tests.
What type of injury accounts for the majority of motorcycle deaths?
Head injuries account for the majority of motorcycle fatalities.
What is the value of appropriate footwear?
Sturdy over-the-ankle boots help protect riders from a variety of riding hazards, such as stones that get thrown up from the roadway. They also prevent burns from hot exhaust pipes.
What is the value of motorcycle specific clothing?
Quality motorcycle protective gear will provide comfort in all conditions, and it can help you avoid being distracted by adverse environmental conditions. In case of a crash, good quality protective gear may prevent or reduce injury.
Define “hypothermia” and provide an example.
Hypothermia, a condition of subnormal body temperature, can cause loss of concentration, slowed reactions, and loss of smooth, precise muscle movement.
What is the value of dressing in layers?
It is wise to dress in layers so that layers can be removed as desired.
What is T-CLOCS and what does each letter stand for?
T-CLOCS is a pre-ride inspection of the motorcycle.
Tires and Wheels; Controls; Lights and Electrics; Oil and Other Fluids; Chassis; and Sidestand
What are the primary motorcycle controls?
Handlebar, throttle, clutch lever, gearshift lever, front brake lever and rear brake pedal
What is the most common way to initiate and control motorcycle lean (for turns)?
To initiate motorcycle lean, press forward on the handgrip in the direction of the turn. Press left, lean left, go left. Press right, lean right, go right.
What is meant by “shift pattern?”
A typical gear pattern is 1-N-2-3-4-5-6. The N is for neutral, which is selected by either a "half lift" from 1st gear or a "half press" from 2nd gear.
Where are the brake controls found?
The front brake lever is found on the right handgrip. The rear brake pedal is found in front of the right footrest.
What does the fuel valve do?
It controls the flow of gasoline to the engine.
What is the function of the tachometer?
It indicates engine speed.
What are some common indicator lights?
Neutral, high beam, turn signal indicators, oil pressure, and side stand down.
What are the steps in starting an engine?
A procedure called FINE-C is used to start the engine. It stands for Fuel, Ignition, Neutral, Engine cut-off switch, and Choke/Clutch.
What is the friction zone?
The friction zone is that area in the travel of the clutch lever that begins where the clutch starts to transmit power to the rear wheel and ends just before the clutch becomes fully engaged.
Describe a good riding posture.
Back straight, and head and eyes up. Both feet on footrests near the controls. Knees and elbows comfortably in. Arms relaxed and bent. Wrist positioned low on the throttle.
List the 4 steps in turning.
Slow, look, press and roll.
When is the counterweight technique used?
In slow, tight turns like a U-turn in a parking lot.
Why do you change gears?
You must change gears to match the engine speed with road speed. Low gears for low speed, high gears for higher speeds.
What is the 3-part shift process?
Roll off the throttle as the clutch is squeezed, lift the shift lever firmly as far as it will go, smoothly ease out the clutch and adjust the throttle.
What is engine braking?
To use engine braking, shift down one gear at a time and ease out the clutch through the friction zone between each downshift.
How much of a motorcycle’s stopping power is available from the front brake?
The front brake provides around 70% of the stopping power for your motorcycle.
Why should both brakes be used simultaneously?
To develop the habit of using both brakes so that your reflexes will be ready to respond quickly and properly when an emergency situation occurs. Maximum braking.
What’s the purpose of the range safety rules?
They are designed to provide a safe, learning environment.
How will the RiderCoaches communicate with you on the range?
RiderCoaches use hand signals during the riding exercises. There will also be times when a RiderCoach will provide verbal communication.
What does it mean to have a space cushion? 25
Having a margin of safety. Maintain as much space cushion as traffic and roadway conditions allow for your margin of safety.
How does a motorcycle utilize lane positions? 26
Positioning yourself properly within a lane can help you avoid windblast from other vehicles, help you see and avoid roadway hazards, and help you create and maintain a space cushion between yourself and other traffic.
Name some ways to be more visible to others in traffic. 26
Clothing: Wear bright colored clothing and a light colored helmet. Use reflective material on your clothing, helmet and motorcycle.
Headlight: Ride with the headlight on during the daytime.
Signals: Communicate with other drivers by signaling intentions.
Brake light: A flashing brake light is more visible than a steady one.
Horn: Use the horn to gain attention, but don't rely on it. Many car and truck drivers may not be able to hear it.
What are the 3 “lead times” (RiderRadar)? 27
They are the 2-second following distance, the 4-second immediate path, and the 12-second anticipated path.
Why is the 2-second following distance considered minimum? 27
Less than perfect riding conditions require increasing available time and space.
Name the 3 components of total stopping distance. 27
1 - Perception distance: distance traveled from the time something is present until you see it.
2 - Reaction distance: distance traveled from the time something is seen to starting to brake.
3 - Braking distance: distance traveled from the time the brakes have been applied until stopped
What does it mean to Search? 28
Search means to scan aggressively for potential factors and hazards. Searching provides you with information to make decisions. Searching means more that just what is in front of you. It also includes the areas behind and to the sides.
What is the characteristic of a convex mirror? 28
They allow the rider to see farther to the sides but they also distort depth perception.
What 4 steps should you follow when around an intersection? 30
Check for traffic behind.
Check for oncoming traffic.
Check for traffic to the left.
Check for traffic to the right.
What are some hazards between intersections? 31
It is important when riding to find and maintain a space cushion. That means to avoid riding in a blind spot and to maintain similar speeds as other traffic. It is important to watch for vehicles pulling away from a parked position, and to notice pedestrians stepping into your path.
What is the No-Zone? 31
The area around a truck or other vehicle that is a blind spot for drivers.
How should you respond to a tailgating driver? 32
In general, it is best to increase your following distance from vehicles ahead to give yourself time and space to execute a smooth, gradual stop. This avoids putting tailgating drivers in a position that requires them to make a quick stop.
What are some factors to search for when approaching a curve? 32
When approaching a curve you must Search for information about the curve: What is its radius and slope? What is the surface composition and condition? What other traffic is involved? Is the entire curve visible? What happens beyond the curve?
How can an outside-inside-outside path of travel help you in curves? 32
Decreases radius turns
Why rise off the seat when crossing an obstacle? 34
Use legs as shock absorbers for stability
Why make a head check before changing lanes? 35
To see what may be in the blind spot area
What makes starting out on a hill (upgrade) more difficult? 36
Special skill is required to start out on a hill. A good technique is to apply a brake to prevent the motorcycle from rolling backward while you move the clutch to the friction zone. Often the rear brake is used; but, if you need to keep both feet down for balance, you could use the front brake while easing out the clutch into the friction zone until you can release the brake and apply some throttle.
What is “overriding the headlight” and what is the solution? 36
This is when the total stopping distance exceeds sight distance.
Name and explain the 3 variations to standard braking systems. 37
Integrated Brakes: Application of the rear brake will cause some application of the front brake.
Linked Brakes: Application of either the front brake or rear brake will cause some pressure to be applied to the other brake.
Anti-Lock Brakes: These are designed to prevent or minimize skidding in a maximum-braking straight-line stop.
What is the best way to achieve maximum braking? 37
The best way to achieve maximum braking distance is to apply both brakes fully without locking either wheel. Simultaneously squeeze the front brake lever and apply the rear brake pedal. Keep the body centered and look well ahead, not down; it helps you keep the motorcycle in a straight line.
What complicates braking in a curve? 37
It's important to remember when stopping in a curve that the amount of traction available for braking is reduced. This is because there is a limited amount of grip existing between the tires and the road surface when the motorcycle is leaning over.
What is a key to stopping quickly on a curve? 37
The key to stopping quickly in a curve is to get the motorcycle straight up as soon as possible so that the maximum amount of traction is available for braking.
What should you do if the front tire skids because of too much braking pressure? 38
If such a front-tire skid occurs, immediately release the front brake completely to allow the wheel to resume rolling, and then reapply the brake properly.
What is the danger of a rear-tire skid? 38
When the rear tire skids, the ability to turn is lost. The biggest danger in any rear-tire skid is releasing the rear brake when the rear wheel is out of alignment with the front wheel. If the rear wheel stops skidding and resumes rolling when it is out of line with the direction of travel, the motorcycle will immediately straighten and could result in loss of control. You could be thrown off in what is commonly called a "high-side" fall, and it is very likely to produce serious injury.
In a swerve, how should you lean? 39
When swerving, keep the motorcycle lean independent of body lean; that is keep your upper torso upright while the motorcycle leans.
What action should be avoided when swerving? 39
Maintain a steady throttle and do not brake while swerving. Swerving may require maximum-performance turns for which all available traction is needed to turn the motorcycle quickly. Any braking while swerving, even engine braking, may force the tires beyond their traction limit and cause a skid.
Why is a surface most slippery as it begins to rain? 39
The surface is most slippery during the first few minutes of rain because oil and dirt combine with water; use the tire tracks left by other vehichles if surface conditions permit to help prevent hydroplaning.
What is hydroplaning? 39
Water buildup under the tread.
How can a crowned road affect riding? 40
These are roads that are higher in the middle to provide drainage. Use caution when going around curves to the left because ground clearance is reduced and the lean angle available will be less than on a flat road.
How does carrying a passenger affect the operation of a motorcycle? 40
The weight makes starting out more difficult and reduces acceleration capability. More time and space will be required for passing. It may also increase stopping distance. Stability may be affected in turns and curves.
What are a few tips for carrying passengers? 40
Adjust suspension and tire pressures
Passenger properly attired
Both feet on the ground and the brakes applied while the passenger mounts. Engine started and transmission neutral.
Avoid abrupt acceleration and decelaration, and go easy on lean angles when cornering, especially with inexperienced passengers.
What 3 points should be considered when carrying loads? 40
There are three points to consider when carrying loads: weight, location, and security.
How should you respond to a dog that approaches from the side? 42
Once an approaching dog is spotted, a good rider response is to slow, including a downshift, then accelerate past the point of interception.
What are the 2 primary effects of alcohol? 43
The primary effects of alcohol are to diminish visual capabilities and alter good judgment.
How fast is alcohol eliminated from the bloodstream? 44
The adult male body is able to eliminate alcohol at the rate of almost "one drink" per hour. Women process alcohol at about three-fourths of that rate.
How much beverage alcohol equals one drink? 44
An accepted definition of a drink is beverage alcohol that contains around an ounce of pure ethyl alcohol. A 12-ounce can of beer, a 5-ounce glass of wine, or a shot of liquor each contains about the same amount of alcohol.
What is the best way to approach intervention? 45
Enlist others: The more people supporting the intervention, the better the chance for success.
What are some ways to intervene when someone has had too much to drink? 45
Arrange a ride
Slow the pace of drinking
Delay departure
Keep the bike parked: Consider hiding the keys.

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